Cristina Elisabet Fernández de Kirchner is an Argentine lawyer and politician, who served as President of Argentina from 2007 to 2015. She was the second woman to serve as President of Argentina (after Isabel Martínez de Perón, 1974–76), the first directly elected female president and the first woman re-elected.
Born in La Plata, Buenos Aires Province, she studied laws at the University of La Plata, and moved to the Patagonia with her husband Néstor Kirchner upon graduation. She was elected to the provincial legislature, and her husband to mayor of Río Gallegos. She was elected national senator in 1995, and had a controversial tenure, while her husband was elected governor of the Santa Cruz Province. She was also elected in 1994 for the constituent assembly that amended the Constitution of Argentina. She became the First Lady from 2003 to 2007, when Néstor Kirchner was elected president.
Néstor Kirchner did not try to be reelected, and Cristina Kirchner was the candidate for the Front for Victory instead, becoming president in the 2007 presidential election. Her first term of office started with a conflict with the agricultural sector, and her proposed taxation system was rejected. After it, she nationalized the private pension funds, and fired the president of the Central Bank. Taxes of public services remain subsidied, the country lost the self-supply of energy, and she renationalized YPF as an alternative. The country fell in a sovereign default in 2014. The country had good international relations with other South American nations, and a rocky one with the United States and the United Kingdom. She also continued the human rights policy of her husband, and had a rocky relation with the press. Néstor Kirchner died in 2010, and Cristina Kirchner was reelected in 2011. She established currency controls during her second term. Several corruption scandals took place, and faced several demonstrations against her rule. Her defeat in the 2013 midterm elections prevented the project to amend the constitution and run for more terms, and appointed governor Daniel Scioli as the candidate for the 2015 presidential elections. Scioli was defeated by mayor Mauricio Macriin a ballotage.
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